Thursday, December 1, 2016

Picasso and Rivera: Conversations Across Time



Los Angeles County Museum of Art
December 4, 2016–May 7, 2017

Museo del Palacio de Bellas Artes
May 31 to September 10, 2017 


The Los Angeles County Museum of Art (LACMA),with Museo del Palacio de Bellas Artes in Mexico City, presents Picasso and Rivera: Conversations Across Time an exhibition that examines moments of intersection in the formation of modernism both in Europe and Latin America, and asks how Pablo Picasso and Diego Rivera—towering figures of the 20th century—both exchanged ideas in Paris about avant-garde paintings and later engaged with their respective ancient Mediterranean and Pre-Columbian worlds. 

The exhibition compares the artists’ trajectories beginning with their similar academic training to their shared investment in Cubism and their return to an engagement with antiquity from the 1920s through the 1950s. 

More than 100 paintings and prints by both artists are in dialogue with oneother and with dozens of ancient Greco-Roman, Iberian, and Aztec objects, Picasso and Rivera aims to advance the understanding of the artists’ practices, particularly in how their contributions were influenced by the forms,myths, and structures of the arts of antiquity. Picasso and Rivera’s radical approach to understanding ancient art was in many ways subversive: by doing that they also rewrote art history—greatly enlarging the recognition of artistic contributions of ancient civilizations. Ancient art became essential for their sense of the future, both personally and politically. 

By placing masterworks by Picasso and Rivera alongside Greco-Roman, Etruscan,and Iberian works as well as Mesoamerican sculptures and ceramic figurines, the exhibition weaves together distant geographies and worlds to blur the frontiersof time and space,” said Diana Magaloni. “Picasso and Riveraviewsboth artists as inventors of a new visual realityin the first decades of the 20thcentury.Diego Rivera brought the Pre-Columbian world to the forefront by showing that the art produced by these cultures was for the Americas what traditional Greek and Roman art was for Europe.”

“LACMA thinks about art history along a continuum,” said Michael Govan. “Rather than perpetuating historical or cultural hierarchies, we seekt o create dialogue, particularly given our location in a city that stands at an international crossroads with both Latin America and the Pacific Rim. This exhibition is a product of an Americas viewpoint, where our ancient indigenous heritage proposes a novel worldview that can interface with classical Western traditions, bringing both a diversity of viewpointsand a profound convergence ofhuman and artistic values.”
 .

Exhibition Organization 

This exhibition is presented in five thematic sections, highlighting the moments of interaction and divergence between the two artists. 

The Academy looks at Picasso and Rivera’s training in their respective national academies—Picasso in Spain and Rivera in Mexico—which they both entered as child prodigies. They studied within the rigorous curriculum of neoclassicism, where copying of the antique and a ruthless adhesion to the principles it had come to represent were the chief means to a successful career. 

Cubsim and Paris (1908–16) examines the period between 1908 and 1916 when both artists moved to Paris and became active participants of the avant-garde movement. The two met in early1914 when Picasso invited Rivera to his studio before camaraderie yielded to rivalry in 1915. Both artists prolifically created Cubist works including



 Picasso’s The Poet (Le poète) (1912) 



and Rivera’s Sailor at Lunch (Marinero almorzando) (1914). 

This period of experimentation became critical for both artists, foreshadowing a unique approach to composition and to ancient art in their future practices.This section also provides a rare opportunity to view Picasso’s Cubism through Rivera’s eyes. Picasso and Rivera both traveled to Italy (in 1917 and 1920, respectively) and, following the war, embraced a revalorization of the classical tradition

Return to Order and Indigenismo addresses the post-WWI desire for order and stability that permeated the Parisian avant-garde. Picasso and Rivera’s monumental paintings of the 1920s capture their reinterpretations of antiquity, be it Greco-Roman for Picasso, or ancient Mesoamerican  for Rivera. Picasso’s first monumental neoclassical painting,  




Pablo Picasso, Three Women at the Spring(Trois femmes à la fontaine),Summer 1921,oil on canvas, 801/4× 68 1/2in.,The Museum of Modern Art, NY, gift of Mr. and Mrs. Allan D. Emil,© 2016 Estate of Pablo Picasso/Artists Rights Society (ARS), New York, digital Image © The Museum of Modern Art/Licensed by SCALA/Art Resource, NY
Three Women at the Spring (1921)—an exceptional loan from the Museum of Modern Art, New York (MoMA)—recasts the classical group of three women, usually appearing as Graces and Fates, into sculptural forms and ona monumental scale.


© 2007 Banco de México Diego Rivera & Frida Kahlo Museums Trust. Reproduction of Diego Rivera governed by Instituto Nacional de Bellas Artes y Literatura.

Meanwhile, in Flower Day (Día de Flores) (1925), Rivera transforms figures of Mexico’s indigenous peoples into icons inspired by Chalchiuhtlicue, the Aztec water goddess. This gallery also includes portions of Rivera’s personal holdings of ancient Pre-Columbian ceramic and stone sculptures, a collection that has never previously traveled outside of Mexico. This will be the first time that Flower Day will be shown alongside the ancient Chalchiuhtlicue sculptures that Rivera often used for his compositions.The subsequent two galleries focus on the artists individually rather than in direct dialogue. 

Rivera and Pre-Columbian Art demonstrates how Rivera vigorously engaged with European modernism only to abandon abstraction for didactic figuration—enriched by references to Mexico’s ancient civilizations—and focusing his attention on public murals that emphasized the national and ideological above the personal. By the 1930s Rivera had already formed his own style where the ancient Mesoamerican sculptures were transformed into everyday living people, creating in this manner a representation of the idealized mestizo race in Mexico. 



In The Flowered Canoe (La Canoa en Florada) (1931), Rivera creates two worlds:the mestizos, influenced byWestern culture, enjoy a day at  Lake Xochimilco, while an oarsman, clearly an indigenous man, represents the force of tradition. 

The gallery dedicated to Picasso and Mythology explores how the artist shaped the foundations of 20th century art through formal experimentation with the art of the past, creating images that were at once deeply personal and universal.



In Studio with Plaster Head (Atelier avec tête et bras de plâtre) (1925), for example, Picasso summarizes his views on thedialectic relationship between ancient Greek and Roman tradition with Western painting and the beginning of modernism. 

Modernism was often conceived as a total break with the past;however, Picasso perceived itas part of a continuum. By showing classical figuration in the artist’s studio,Picasso implies that itisthe responsibility of the artist to create something new out of tradition. In this way,he presents an artistic lineage that goes from ancient Greece to Cubism.  


Exhibition Catalogue




Picasso and Rivera: Conversations Across Time is accompanied by a fully illustrated catalogue published by Del Monico Books/Prestel. 

Examining the artistic development of Pablo Picasso and Diego Rivera, two towering figures in the world of modern art, this generously illustrated book tells an intriguing story of ambition, competition, and how the ancient world inspired their most important work. Picasso and Rivera: Conversations Across Time explores the artistic dialogue between Pablo Picasso and Diego Rivera that spanned most of their careers. 

The book showcases nearly 150 iconic paintings, sculptures, and prints by both artists, along with objects from their native ancient Mediterranean and Pre- Columbian worlds. It gives an overview of their early training in national academies; important archaeological discoveries that occurred during their formative years; and their friendly and adversarial relationship in Montparnasse. A series of essays accompanies the exquisitely reproduced works, allowing readers to understand how the work of each artist was informed by artworks from the past. Picasso drew upon Classical art to shape the foundations of 20th-century art, creating images that were at once deeply personal and universal. Meanwhile, Rivera traded the abstractions of European modernism for figuration and references to Mexico’s Pre-Columbian civilization, focusing on public murals that emphasized his love of Mexico and his hopes for its future. 

Offering valuable insight into the trajectory of each artist, this book draws connections between two powerful figures who transformed modern art.

The 304-page volume is edited by Michael Govan and Diana Magaloniwith contributions by Émilie Bouvard, Lilly Casillas, Juan Rafael Coronel Rivera, Michael Govan, Michele Greet, Patricia Leighten, Diana Magaloni, Camille Mathieu, Itzel A. Rodríguez Mortellaro, James Oles, and Jennifer Stager. 

Wednesday, November 30, 2016

Christie's Old Master & British Paintings Sale 8 December: Goya, Bellotto, Jordaens, Constable and Lear



At the culmination of Christie’s 250th anniversary year and as a major highlight of Classic Week, The Monarch of the Glen (circa 1849–51, estimate on request) by Sir Edwin Henry Landseer, R.A. (1802-73) will lead the Old Master Evening Sale (8 December 2016), alongside important works by Francisco de Goya y Lucientes, Bernardo Bellotto and Edward Lear. The auction will mark the fourth occasion that The Monarch of the Glen has commanded Christie’s saleroom, having last been offered precisely a century ago, in 1916.

The painting is one of the most celebrated works of British art and an icon of 19th-Century European painting. The Monarch of the Glen was originally commissioned in 1849 for the Refreshment Room in the House of Lords. It presents a majestic portrait of a stag posed before a Scottish mountain landscape, monarch of all he surveys, and is realised with Landseer’s complete knowledge of anatomy and texture. The work will be exhibited at Christie’s New York (4-15 November 2016) and Hong Kong (24-28 November 2016), before being on view in London (2-8 December 2016) during Classic Week.

John Stainton, Deputy Chairman of Christie’s Old Master and British Paintings Department: “Following this year’s record-breaking Old Master sales which include Rubens’s ‘Lot and his Daughters’ and, via private treaty, two Rembrandt Portraits and the iconic ‘Armada Portrait’, there is perhaps no more fitting a conclusion to our 250th anniversary than the return of Sir Edwin Landseer’s ‘The Monarch of the Glen’ to Christie’s King Street. The sales in 1884 and 1892, prompted Landseer to become known as the ‘king of the salerooms’ and in 2016 Landseer’s masterpiece will lead Christie’s December Classic Week.”

SIR EDWIN HENRY LANDSEER, R.A. (LONDON, 1802-73)

The Monarch of the Glen was originally commissioned in 1849 as one of three works planned for the Refreshment Room in the House of Lords and was exhibited at the Royal Academy summer exhibition of 1851. The work was purchased from the artist by the sportsman Lord Londesborough for 350 guineas, it was then offered at Christie’s on three occasions; first by his widow, Lady Otho Fitzgerald, in 1884 for 6,200 guineas; then again in 1892 for 6,900 guineas, with other notable works by the artist that had been acquired by H.W. Eaton, Lord Cheylesmore; and lastly exactly one century ago, in 1916, when it was bought by Sir Thomas Dewar, of John Dewar & Sons, one of Scotland's largest whisky companies.

Inspired by his visit to Sir Walter Scott at Abbotsford in 1924, Landseer spent much time hunting and shooting in Scotland, where he was a popular guest of his wealthy patrons and the royal family. Landseer began painting narrative scenes, vivid landscape sketches, and deer subjects for which he would become famous. His artistic vision was carefully considered, reflecting his exhilaration and deep connection with nature, as well as his romantic notion of life and sport in the Highlands. In The Monarch of the Glen, Landseer elevates animal painting to high art, creating a grandiose canvas celebrating the splendour of both the stag and the landscape it inhabits.

OLD MASTER HIGHLIGHTS

Clementine Sinclair, Head of Christie’s Old Master Evening Sale: “The Old Master Evening Sale brings together a remarkable array of works from some of the most sought-after artists in the European tradition. From Jordaens and Bellotto to Goya and Landseer, the exceptional line-up offers global collectors a number of important works, many of which have outstanding provenance and are presented for sale for the first time in several generations.”



Further notable highlights of the Old Master Evening Sale include the sketch by Francisco de Goya y Lucientes (1746-1828) of A Woman with two Boys by a fountain (estimate: £4,000,000-6,000,000) from the Thyssen-Bornemisza collection. This beautifully-preserved work is closely associated with the most important Spanish Royal commission of its time when, following his appointment as Painter to the King in June 1786, Goya was commissioned to produce large painted cartoons for tapestries to decorate the dining room of the heir to the throne, Carlos, Prince of Asturias, in El Pardo Palace, Madrid. Carlos III had requested designs of light-hearted subjects and a principal theme of the Four Seasons was agreed. The full-scale cartoons are all preserved in the Prado, Madrid, while the smaller sketches for these designs are dispersed in major international museums including, the Museo Lazaro Galdiano, Madrid; the Sterling and Francine Clark Art Institute, Williamstown; the Art Institute of Chicago; and the Prado, Madrid. This sketch and only one other from the series of six principal designs



(Spring, or The Flower Seller) remain in private hands. The rapid brushwork, luminous palette and numerous pentimenti in this sketch are remarkably well preserved, revealing Goya’s evolving design for the final cartoon. In the end, as a consequence of the death of Carlos III the following year, the tapestries woven from Goya’s designs were never hung in El Pardo and the sketches remained in Goya’s possession. This sketch was acquired from the artist in 1798 by the Duke and Duchess of Osuna.



Following the landmark sale of Sir Peter Paul Rubens’s Lot and his Daughters for £44.9 million earlier this year, this season Christie’s will present a work by another celebrated Northern Baroque artist, Jacob Jordaens (1593-1678), who succeeded Rubens as the leading painter in Antwerp following the latter’s death in 1640.  




The Holy Family with an angel (circa 1625-6, estimate: £500,000–800,000) is an important and intimate early work by the artist, and a subject that Jordaens frequently returned to throughout his career. This painting was completed at a time when Jordaens produced some of his finest work, including the monumental Saint Peter Finding Money in the Mouth of a Fish (Copenhagen, Statens Museum for Kunst), and it was these works which established his reputation. The composition is articulated with expressive gestures and glances. Christ’s fate is made explicit by the rosary clasped in His hand and the grapes held by the angel as a symbol of the Eucharist. Jordaens may have used portraits of his son, Jordaens the Younger, and wife, Catharina, for the figures of Christ and the Virgin in this picture. His use of realistic models, the rustic presentation of religious subjects and his dramatic use of light and shade point to Caravaggio’s influence.



Bernardo Bellotto (1721-80) will be represented in the sale with The courtyard of the Fortress of Königstein with the Magdalenenburg (circa 1760; estimate: £2,000,000–3,000,000), an impressive and rare view of the Saxon castle, once in the collection of the Counts Potocki, Lańcut Castle, Poland.

Having established himself as an artist of the highest order, being paid more than any previous Court Painter, Bellotto was called to Dresden in 1747. Here he began to work on his renowned series of views of the city for Augustus III, Elector of Saxony and King of Poland (1696-1763), along with full-scale replicas for the chief minister, Graf Heinrich von Brühl (1700-63). The Elector also commissioned five views of his castle at Königstein, which were never delivered to Augustus III and were later dispersed. This painting depends on a picture from the original series, which is now in Manchester City Art Gallery. Bellotto remained in Dresden until 1758, when he travelled to Vienna and Munich, before returning to Dresden in 1761. His celebrated renderings of the major capitals of Northern Europe, including Dresden, Vienna, Munich and Warsaw, hold an important place in European topographical painting.



The sale also includes a spirited en plein air sketch of Beaching a Boat, Brighton (estimate: £500,000 – 800,000) by John Constable, R.A. (1776-1837), which was used in the preparation for



one of the artist’s famed ‘Six-Footers’ showing Chain Pier, Brighton, exhibited at the Royal Academy in 1827 (London, Tate Britain). The sketch was kept in the artist’s studio until his death in 1837 when it passed to his daughter Isabel, before being offered for sale at Christie’s in 1892. It later formed part of the distinguished Chéramy and Hatvany collections, when it was heralded as anticipating Impressionism in its truth to nature and in the spontaneity of its brushwork.



Edward Lear’s (1812-88)  monumental The Forest of Bavella (circa 1878-88; estimate: £600,000-800,000) is also among the highlights. The work is the largest of only three known oil paintings that he executed of the forests of Southern Corsica following his expedition to the island during the winter of 1867-68. It illustrates Lear’s unparalleled skill at capturing a sense of grandeur and an epic depth of scale, with soaring pines, and cavernous ravine set against a mountainous backdrop. Using a combination of vivid, quickly-applied brushstrokes with carefully delineated details, Lear demonstrates his supremacy as a topographical draughtsman.

Monday, November 28, 2016

Sotheby’s London Old Masters Evening Sale on 7 December 2016



Sotheby’s London Old Masters Evening Sale

Two Exceptional Italian Renaissance Portraits 
At the core of this winter’s sale is a group of ten paintings of impressive quality from the collection formed by Sir William Forbes, the 7th Baronet of Pitsligo (17731828), a Scottish banker who gave much of his fortune to various charitable establishments in Edinburgh. All of the works in the sale were acquired in Italy by the art dealer James Irvine on Forbes’ behalf between May 1827 and November 1828 and have never appeared on the market since then. 


Leading this group is a Portrait of two boys, said to be members of the Pesaro family painted by Titian (1485/90 - 1576) with some assistance from his studio, probably in the early 1540s. This striking work is a rarity in the genre of portraiture for it is one of the first and very few double portraits in Renaissance painting. Its originality also lies in its intensely expressive representation of childhood, rarely seen in Titian’s oeuvre which only comprises a small group of portraits of children. Not until the following century would something comparable be attempted by Rubens when painting his sons (est. £1 - 1.5 million). 



From the same collection is a stunning Portrait of an architect by Lorenzo Lotto (1480-1556), a recently discovered addition to the artist's œuvre and one of some forty-odd surviving portraits, nearly all of which are now in public collections. Lotto’s portraits are among the most inventive and expressive of the first half of the 16th century and often break with conventions in portraiture. Probably painted in the 1540s, this work is remarkable for the sparseness of its composition, as well as the pose and expression of the sitter who engages directly with the viewer (est. £200,000-300,000). 


TWO MAGNIFICENT ITALIAN GOLD-GROUNDS 

The sale is further distinguished by a fine selection of early Italian Renaissance paintings, and most notably two magnificent 15th- century Italian gold-grounds which have been in the collection formed by the famous German painter Franz von Lenbach (1836- 1904) for over a century. Both works beautifully exemplify the artistic production in two of the principal cities in Tuscany in the late Middle Ages and Early Renaissance. 

The first is one of the most arresting gabella panels ever created. Gabelle are inextricably linked to the history of Siena which was already a fully-functioning democracy in the 15th century. These small painted panels, produced between the mid- 13th century and the last quarter of the 17th century, served as file covers for the officials leaving office after their six-month fixed term in the Republic (when they had to make all their paperwork public as an anti-corruption requirement). These files and their covers were then hung on the city walls so that the population might have access to
them. 




A work of considerable rarity, this Flagellation was made in 1441 by the Master of the Osservanza, now recognised as Sano di Pietro (14051481), one of the most prominent Sienese artists of the first half of the 15th century. Today, most Gabelle covers are in Siena, and a handful are scattered among museums. With its highly inventive design, the present work is therefore one of the very few and most stunning Gabella panels still in private hands outside Italy (est. £400,000-600,000). 



The other major gold-ground in the sale is a luminous work by Bicci di Lorenzo, one of the most important painters of early 15th- century Florence. Painted in the early 1430s, this Nativity is a fine example of Bicci's distinctly traditionalist style that ensured a long- lasting demand for his paintings (est. £300,000-500,000). 
DUTCH AND FLEMISH MASTERWORKS FROM THE "GOLDEN AGE
Following the auction record set for a still life by Jan Brueghel the Elder in London in July 




Still Life of flowers in a stoneware vase, the sale will feature a magnificent flower painting by another pioneer in the genre, Ambrosius Bosschaert the Elder. Bosschaert was wholly responsible for the sudden outburst of flower painting in the Netherlands at the start of the 17th century and this beautifully preserved  Still life of tulips, wild roses, cyclamen, yellow ranunculus, forget-me-not and other flowers, in a glass beaker is a very fine example of his early works. Dating from circa 16081610, it is little known, having only been exhibited once, in 1970, and only ever published in the catalogue of that exhibition (est. £800,000-1,200,000). 
The sale will also provide a fascinating insight into the extraordinary impact that the work of Pieter Bruegel the Elder (c. 1525-1569) had upon Netherlandish landscape and genre painting in his own century, and equally how his influence was still being felt in the following century, as witnessed by the work of his son Pieter Brueghel the Younger (1564-1637/8) and his contemporaries, including Maerten van Cleve (c. 1527-1581). 



The highlight of this section is one of the finest known versions of Pieter Brueghel the Younger’s Return from the Kermesse, a composition that enjoyed great popularity during the artist’s lifetime and which appears to have been entirely of his own design. Its beautiful state of preservation allows us to fully appreciate the superb draughtsmanship, understanding of gesture, colour, composition and story-telling that have ensured for Brueghel a lasting reputation (est. £2-3 million). Previous sale.

Monday, November 21, 2016

Édouard Manet, the Man who Invented Modern Art


musée d'Orsay  
5 April – 3 July 2011 


 Édouard Manet,Amazone / l'été[Woman in a Riding Habit, Full Face], 1882 Oil on canvas, 74 x 52 cm Madrid, Thyssen-Bornemisza Foundation © Museo Thyssen-Bornemisza, Madrid.  

There has been no exhibition exclusively devoted toManet in France since 1983, the date of the memorable retrospective produced by Françoise Cachin and Charles S. Moffett. In the ensuing twenty-five years, however, there has been much valuable research and fruitful reflection. A rejection of formalism and a return to history, personal as well as collective, characterise the best of this work, whether documenting Manet’s life story or analysing his work, how it was exhibited and received. Our understanding of French painting from the period 1840 to 1880 has at the same time become more refined and freed from over-Manicheistic interpretations. From these two developments, in which the musée d'Orsay continues to be involved, a new image of Manet and his generation has appeared. 

This exhibition aims to demonstrate this in a most clear and attractive way. More than just a strictly linear, monographic retrospective, it constructs its premise around some nine questions, each one closely related to the historical process from which Manet cannot be separated. 

Simplifying his modernity to an iconographic register or bringing it down to a few stylistic elements comes, as we know, from a reductive approach. Manet is modern primarily because he embraces, as much as Courbet yet differently, the changes in the media that marked his era, and the unregulated circulation of images; secondly because imperial France, the backdrop to his developing career, was modern. And finally because the manner in which he challenged the masters of the Louvre was modern, extending beyond his militant Hispanism. 

It is clear that the aesthetic he forged after 1860 demands a broader definition of realism than is normally ascribed to him. With this objective in mind, the exhibition aims to revisit the many links, visual, literary or political, between Manet’s art and Romantic culture. It will focus on the teaching of Thomas Couture, Baudelaire’s support and encouragement, the reform of religious art, erotic imageryand its unresolved issues, etc. But the originality of an artist as unpredictable as Manet cannot be reduced to the sum of the sources from which he distils his art. 

Other sections of the exhibition try to throw light on the art of the fragment(ed), his relationship with women painters (Berthe Morisot, Eva Gonzalès), his decision to remain outside the main Impressionist movement and his complicity with Mallarmé at his darkest. 

The final reminder of the exhibition at the Galleryde la Vie Moderne, the last one-man show, in 1880, of a painter obsessed by the Salon, raises the question of what “the freedom to create” meant to him. This means that “Manet, the Man who Invented Modernity” highlights later works that areless well known and, more importantly, little understood if regarded as simply a stage in the process towards “pure painting”.

 Curator: Stéphane Guégan, curator, musée d'Orsay 

Sections: - The Couture School - The Baudelaire Moment - On the Future of Christian Art - From the Prado to the Alma - “The Promises of a Face” - Impressionism trapped - 1879 - a turning point - Less is more? - The end of the Story.

Publication



Manet, the Man who invented Modernity, Exhibition catalogue by Stéphane Guégan, musée d'Orsay / Gallimard, 336 pages, 280 illustrations,


The Exhibition 

There has been no exhibition exclusively devoted to Manet in France since 1983, the date of the memorable retrospective produced by Françoise Cachin and Charles S. Moffett. In the ensuing thirty years, however, there has been much valuable research and useful comment. We can no longer consider the painter’s “modernity” without a comprehensive approach that takes into account the diversity of his work, the versatility in his career and his active relationship with his own times. The “man of the world” that Zola praised in 1867, was “a painter inthe world”. The poetic and the political, in every sense that this republican gave these words, go hand in hand. 

In a way, the exhibition came about through one painting, 



Homage to Delacroix, that Fantin-Latour, one year after the great artist’s death, showed at the Salon in 1864. 

In it, we can see Manet in good company, standing between Champfleury and Baudelaire. On the one hand, Courbet’s man; on the other, Delacroix’s champion: Manet was the troublemaker who brought Realism and Romanticism together and confused the issue. Fantin-Latour’s hypothesis onlyneeded some support. 

This is what the nine sections of this exhibition propose to do by rescuing Manet from the unsound judgment of later generations. The reputed father of “Impressionism” or of “pure painting” is now an outdated idea. Manet’s dazzling success after 1860, his continued evolution until 1883, from militant Hispanism to unorthodox Naturalism, his determination to revolutionise history painting in the public space where it was meaningful, these perspectives are more relevant to the inventor of the “Modern”. 

Manet was modern in the way he captured the life of his time in life-size images, brought the arsenal of the old masters up to date and exploited the resources of an era that profoundly redefined the distribution and commercial availability of images. A regular exhibitor at the Salon, no matter what, the Delacroix of “new painting” would have only one enemy, the old established concepts of form and the trivialisation of the senses.


The Choice of Couture 

Édouard Manet Le jeune garçon à l'épée, 1861 Huile sur toile, 131, 1 x 93, 4 cm New York, Metropolitan Museum of Art © The Metropolitan Museum of Art, Dist. RMN / imageof the MMA 

 In order to emphasise his radical approach even more, Manet’s first supporters cut him off from his roots. According to them, therefore, he would not have learnt anything or retained anything from his six years (late 1849 to early 1856) with Thomas Couture, the painter of Romans of the Decadence. Having failed to get into the Naval College in Brest, the young Manet nonetheless enrolled with enthusiasm in this prominent studio. Couture was then regarded asthe heir to Veronese and Rubens, as well as to Ribera and Géricault, and furthermore, was Academic... This friend of Michelet was also an official artist of the Second Republic. When Manet joined him, Couture was striving to complete an enormous patriotic scene, 




The Enrollment of the Volunteers of 1792. The realistic vitality of this painting enlivened the student’s studies even more. Manet also appreciated the all-encompassing sincerity of the portraitist. Of course, it was not just Couture. The copies of Delacroix and his Boy with a Sword revealed other ambitions. 

The Baudelaire Moment 



Édouard Manet Le déjeuner sur l'herbe, 1863 Huile sur toile, 208 x 264,5 cm Paris, Musée d'Orsay © Musée d'Orsay, dist. RMN / Patrice Schmidt 
 
Manet and Baudelaire met around 1860. And a “strongaffinity” brought them together until the death of the author of theFlowers of Evil. Since his first articles on the Salon, Baudelaire had been trying to convert Romanticism into Modernity - he would be for the visual arts what Balzac had been for thenovel. It matters little in the end that Baudelaire never openly acknowledged Manet as “the painter of modern life”, the expression he applied to the illustrator ConstantinGuys. When Victorine Meurent suddenly appeared in his pictures, as a singer fallen on hard times or a shameless bather, Manet, the creator of Luncheon on the Grass found a way of painting in the present moment, of combining this new prosaicism ofsubject with the spontaneity of photography and the depth of classical painting. Animaginative world, and even a certain style of drawing, finally linked poet and painter. From Spanish dancers and the doomed woman to queens of the night, the continuity speaks for itself, and would stay with “the painter of the black cat” for a longtime. 


A Suspect Catholicism 


Édouard Manet Le Christ aux anges, 1864 Huile sur toile, 179,4 x 149,9 cm New-York, Metropolitan Museum of Art © The Metropolitan Museum of Art, Dist. RMN / imageof the MM

 In 1864, a year after the Salon des Refusés, there was another, more metaphysical shock : Manet exhibited his Dead Christ with Angels, and shook up the traditional practices of l'Art Saint-Sulpice,the art of the Catholic Church. He took his inspiration from Italy (Fra Angelico, Andrea del Sarto) and Spain (El Greco, Velazquez, Goya), following the example of Legros, a precocious rival. Baudelaire, a Catholic himself, as were they, supported their efforts in the more controlled genre of the female nude. In 1859, when speaking of Delacroix, the poet had written : “religion, being the highest fictionof the human spirit [...], requires the most vigorous imagination and the greatest effort from those who devote themselves tothe expression of its actions and its sentiments”. Manet, a friend of Abbot Hurel, took up this challenge : to reinvent, not revive, sacred art. Although not a pillar of the church, the painter of Olympiawas nonetheless respectful of the inviolable rights of individual faith and the teaching of the gospels. The 20thcentury would in the end find this religious phasesuspect, and would forget it ...


From the Prado to the Alma  





Édouard Manet Le torero mort, 1864 Huile sur toile, 75,9 x 153,3 cm Washington, National Gallery © Widener Collection, Image courtesy National Gallery of Art, Washington


After the failure at the 1865 Salon of Jesus mocked by Soldiers and of Olympia, Manet went to Spain for the first time. His main aim was to see Velazquez’s paintings at the Prado. His direct encounter with the master sof the Golden Age, including El Greco and Goya, not to mention the wealth of Italian artists in Madrid, would affect him in a number of ways. In 1866, when 




The Fife Player was rejected by the Salon jury, Zola noted the astonishing blend of sobriety and energy emanating from the paintings that Manet had produced on his return from Spain. With its harshness and dramatic tension, Dead Matador reached new heights. It is a fragment of a bullfighting scene that Manet had cut up in 1865. This was not an isolated case. Whether it was dissatisfaction or a desire to intensify the visual power of the paintings, this was a clever choice in view of the continual criticism from the press. Instead of producing ever more skilful compositions, Manet fragmented, telescoped and stimulated perception. His horse racing scenes acquired an unprecedented spirit and vitality.  


“The Promises of a Face” 



Édouard Manet Le balcon, entre 1868 et 1869 Huile sur toile 170 x 124,5 cm Paris, Musée d'Orsay © Photo musée d'Orsay / RMN 
 Baudelaire commented on the interplay of desire and frustration running through the series of portraits of Berthe Morisot that started at the 1869 Salon with The Balcony. The model, a young woman who did not fit well into her upper class background, also a painter and future active member of the “Impressionist group”, spoke highly of this painting which reminded her of Guys and Goya : “His paintings, as always, create the impression of wild fruit, slightly unripe even. I really like them.” The Balcony is disturbing, as much for its suspension in space and colour contrasts as for the mystery and obstinate silence of the protagonists who ignore each other, looking outwards, disillusioned and fatalistic. Alongside Berthe Morisot, who sits like a fashion-plate model trapped in her own melancholy, Manet represented the violinist Fanny Claus and landscape artist Antoine Guillemet. Until 1874, when she married one of his brothers, the painter flirted with using different moods and settings to transform her image – an indication of how his art could make the illusory boundary between reality and fiction unstable and therefore visible.  

 The Trap of Impressionism 




 Édouard Manet La Seine à Argenteuil, 1874 Huile sur toile, 62,3 x 103 cm Londres, the Courtauld Gallery © Private Collection, on extended loan to the Courtauld Gallery, London 

In May 1874, Manet distanced himself from the first exhibition of the Impressionists, according to a comment by one scornful critic. Some, such as Degas, deplored this and spoke of desertion. The press was astonished. The painter of Luncheon on the Grass, the supposed champion of plein air painting, was considered their “leader”. The fact remains that Manet’s artistic idiom had moved on after the end of the Franco-Prussian war and the Commune, two events that closely affected him. He lightened his palette and his style became more vibrant. It would be wrong to put this down purely to the influence of his friends Monet and Renoir. This chromatic and formal liberation had revealed itself in the mid 1860s in his seascapes, his most sober, and closest to Whistler. Rather than adopting the emerging aesthetic, Manet adapted it for his own purposes, for which the Salon remained the ideal place. During those years, Mallarmé, who like Manet was a frequent visitor to Nina de Callias’ salon, came into his social circle and his art. Two illustrated books, somewhere between fantasy and the fantastic, sealed a friendship that only death would end.

1879 – A Turning Point



Édouard Manet Au père Lathuille, 1879 Huile sur toile, 93,5 x 112,5 cm Tournai, musée des Beaux-Arts © Collection du Musée des Beaux- Arts de Tournai, Belgique   

The change of direction was initially political after the election of Jules Grévy. The atmosphere of the Salon altered too. These new circumstances accelerated Manet’s development, in form and content. At Père Lathuille’s, which delighted Huysmans at the 1880 Salon, Manet avoided the rather obvious moralising of Zola whose novels he very much enjoyed. However he had never aspired to judge contemporary morals from above. But he did, however, cultivate a relationship with the friends of the publisher Charpentier, whose success had given him the financial means to launch La Vie Moderne, both an illustrated review and a gallery open to the new painting of Renoir, Monet and Manet himself. In April 1880, Manet exhibited around twenty paintings and pastels. As well as being a summary, it was, as the Portrait of Constantin Guys indicates, a kind of small-scale manifesto. The numerous scenes of brasseries and music halls impressed his contemporaries, as did the fashionably dressed society women and demi-mondaines: Manet revealed himself here “in a completely new light - a painter of elegant women” (Philippe Burty). 

Less is more? 




 Édouard Manet Vase de pivoines sur piedouche, 1864 Huile sur toile, 93,2 x 70,2 cm Paris, Musée d'Orsay © Musée d'Orsay, dist. RMN/Patrice Schmidt

Although quite numerous, a fifth of his entire oeuvre, Manet did not consider his still lifes in the way we do today, in thrall to an absurd relativism that scarcely gives Olympia any more importance than the artist’s first idealised piece of asparagus. In truth, he would have reacted furiously at our indifference to the categories that governed his work: primacy of the senses, impact on the imagination and the compositional imperative. 

His best still lifes held a modest position in this hierarchy. Their raison d'être was first and foremost a practical one: while his figures did not sell, he increased the images of flowers, fruits and “set tables”. More than just decorative virtuosity, a direct homage to the old masters or the delightful intrusion of the accidental, it is their dramatic quality that saves them from banality. Around 1880, he started to use closer framing and smaller canvases. When stripped down to the minimum, with a flash of brightness on the rich impasted surface, small, insignificant things, which amused the painter, attained an unprecedented expansiveness.



 






The End of the Story...




Manet was always a history painter, a “universal” painter, from ambition and from a desire to record the political situation of the time. The first work he presented under his own name, in 1860, was a caricature of Émile Ollivier, published in Diogenes, a liberal, anti-clerical journal run by Ernest Adam. This friend of the Manet family, a young lawyer and republican parliamentary deputy, reminds us that they and their friends opposed the Second Empire. That Édouard then painted several controversial paintings, including the 


Édouard Manet La bataille du S.S. Kearsarge et du C.S.S. Alabama, 1864

Huile sur toile, 134 x 127 cm Philadelphia, Museum of Art

© Photo The Philadelphia Museum of Art : John G. Johnson Collection, 1917

Battle of the Kearsarge and  





The Execution of Maximilian, came as no surprise. When the Radicals came to power in 1879, it gave him a final boost. Decorative projects and portraits confirmed his commitment. The establishment of 14 July as France’s national day and the amnesty for the Communards prompted him to pay tribute to a "red", which was echoed in December 1880 by Monet’s comment: “I saw Manet, in good enough health, very much taken up with a sensational painting for the Salon - Rochefort escaping in a rowing boat on the open sea.” (Monet). Destined for the Salon, the unfinished canvas was both his 




Barque of Dante (Eugene Delacroix) 



and his Raft of the Medusa (Théodore Géricault).



Chronology of Édouard Manet  

Extract from the exhibition album, The Danger of Manet, by Stéphane Guégan, Musée d'Orsay / Gallimard 

1832 23 January, Édouard Manet is born in Paris into an affluent middle class family. His father, Auguste, is a high-ranking official in the Ministryof Justice; his mother, Eugénie-Désirée, also wealthy, a goddaughter of the King of Sweden (Bernadotte), is the daughter of a diplomat. Two brothers are born after him, Eugène (1833) and Gustave (1835).
1844-1848 After studying at the Poiloup Institute in Vaugirard, he enters the Collège Rollin (nowadays the Lycée Jacques-Decour), where he meets Antonin Proust (
1832-1905). Manet’s maternal uncle, Édouard Fournier, apparently takes him to visit the Musée du Louvre for the first time.
1848 22-25 February : revolutionary days. Proclamation of the Second Republic.
1848-1849 Rather than study law, Manet, chooses to go into the navy. However he fails the entrance exam for the Naval Academy. In December
1848, just before the election of Louis-Napoleon Bonaparte as first president of the French Republic, he sets sail on a training vessel heading for Rio de Janeiro. During the voyage, he produces drawings and caricatures. On his return, he fails once more to be accepted into the Naval Academy. His parents allow him to take up a career in art.
1850 Manet joins the studio of Thomas Couture (1815-1879), in rue Laval. He stays there for almost six years. Suzanne Leenhof (1830-1906), his brothers’ piano teacher, becomes his mistress.
1851 2 December : coup d’etat by Louis-Napoleon Bonaparte. Manet seems to have already demonstrated his opposition to the “gravedigger of the Republic”.
1852 29 January : Suzanne Leenhoff gives birth to an illegitimate son, Léon-Édouard Koëlla, called Leenhoff (1852-1927). Is he the painter’s son or half-brother? The question remains open. 2 December: proclamation of the Second Empire. Louis-Napoleon Bonaparte becomes Napoleon III.
1852-1853 Manet makes a number of trips. He travels to Holland, Germany, Austria and Italy. In Venice and Florence he becomes friendly with Émile Ollivier (1825-1913), a young Republican lawyer whose father has been exiled. Copies the masters.
1855 Gustave Courbet sets up his Pavilion of Realism outside the Universal Exhibition.
1856 After leaving Couture, Manet moves into a studio inrue Lavoisier with the painter Albert de Balleroy (1828-1872).
1857-1859 Another trip to Italy. Manet meets Henri Fantin-Latour (1836-1904) and Degas (1834-1917).
1861 Manet moves into his studio in rue Guyot, in the vicinity of the Plaine Monceau. At the Salon he shows Portrait of Mr. and Mrs M[anet]and The Spanish Singer, which earns him an “honourable” mention. Starts exhibiting at the Martinet Gallery, 26 boulevard des Italiens.
1862 Manet exhibits some prints in Alfred Cadart’s gallery, 66 rue de Richelieu. Is one of the founder members of the Société des Aquafortistes (Society of Etchers) that aims to revive etching. First articles by Charles Baudelaire in which he mentions his friend Manet.
1863 March : exhibits fourteen paintings at the MartinetGallery, including Boy with a Sword, The Street Singer, The Gypsies and Lola de Valence, a work that includes a quatrain by Baudelaire. May : opening of the Salon des Refusés. Luncheon on the Grass [Le Déjeuner sur l’herbe], arouses the indignation of the critics with very few exceptions. August: Manet attends Delacroix’s funeral with Baudelaire. October: Manetmarries Suzanne Leenhoff.
1864 Fantin-Latour exhibits Homage to Delacroix at the Salon, with Manet in the centre. Manet himself exhibits The Angels at Christ’s Tomb (Dead Christ with Angels) and Episode from a Bullfight, the bottom part of which would become The Dead Man (The Dead Matador) after it was cut up. Moves to 34 boulevard des Batignolles. Paints The Battle of the ‘Kearsarge’ and the ‘Alabama’.During the summer makes his first visit to Boulogne-sur-Mer.
1865 At the Salon, Manet exhibits Olympia andJesus mocked by the Soldiers, which cause a scandal. Stays in Madrid for the summer. The Velazquez paintings in the Prado have a huge impact on him.
1866 The Fife Playerand The Tragic Actor are refused by the Salon. Émile Zola (
1840-1902) defends the painter with unusual vehemence. Manet moves to 49, rue de Saint-Pétersbourg. Frequents the Café Guerbois, in what is now the avenue de Clichy, a meeting place for writers and artists. Meets Paul Cézanne (1839-1906)and Claude Monet (1840-1926).
1867 Aiming to take advantage of the Universal Exhibition, Manet has a pavilion built near the Pont de l’Alma, where he displays fifty of his paintings and prints. As part of a collective strategy, Fantin-Latour exhibits his portrait of Manet, and Zola publishes a vitriolic brochure. However, there are few positive responses. September: Manet attends Baudelaire’s funeral. 29
1868 Exhibits his Portrait of Émile Zolaat the Salon. The writer dedicates his novel Madeleine Férat to Manet. Manet meets Berthe Morisot (1841-1895) and her sister, as well as Léon Gambetta (1838-1882).
1869 January-February : Manet is informed that he cannot exhibit The Execution of Maximilian or publish the lithograph taken from it. Zola denounces these two acts of censorship in the press. The Balcony,first appearance of his friend Berthe Morisot, andLunch in the Studio are presented at the Salon.
1870 May : exhibits the portrait of his pupil Éva Gonzalès at the Salon. 4 September: after the defeat at Sedan and the fallof Napoleon III, the Third Republic is proclaimed. The Prussians are at the gates of Paris. The siege begins. Manet joins the National Guard. After two months he leaves the artillery to join the general staff.
1871 January-February : ceasefire and preliminary negotiations for a catastrophic peace treaty resulting in a severe war indemnity for France, andthe loss of Alsace and Lorraine. Manet rejoins his family in Oloron-Sainte-Marie in the Pyrénées. March-May: The Paris Commune. Manet returns just after the “Bloody Week” (21-28 May). He would later create a permanent reminder of the event.
1872 Durand-Ruel buys twenty-four of Manet’s paintings. Manet once again exhibits The Battle of the ‘Kearsarge’ and the ‘Alabama’.Visits Holland (Haarlem and Amsterdam). The painter moves into his new studio at 4, rue de Saint-Pétersbourg, near the railway. He frequents the Café de La Nouvelle-Athènes, place Pigalle, along with Degas, Renoir, Monet and Pissarro.
1873 Exhibits Le Bon Bock, a patriotic allegory, at the Salon. At the home of Nina de Callias, he meets Stéphane Mallarmé (
1842-
1898), with whom he would develop a long friendship.
1874 The Salon jury only accepts The Railwayand the watercolour Polichinelle, a caricature of Mac-Mahon. They refuse The Swallows and Masked Ball at the Opera. Mallarmé responds to the insult in an article in La Renaissance Artistique et Littéraire. First ‘Impressionist’ exhibition, in which Manet chooses not to participate. During the summer he visits Monet, and does several portraits of him.
1875 Exhibits Argenteuilat the Salon. He arouses the anger of the press who label him the leader of the Impressionist school in a derisive and provocative gesture. Manet illustrates Stéphane Mallarmé’s French translation of Edgar Allen Poe’s The Raven.Travels to Venice in October with his wife Suzanne and James Tissot (
1836-1902).
1876 In April, after his paintings are refused at the Salon, Manet displays his works in his studio. Another retaliatory article by Mallarmé, whose poemL’Après-midi d’un fauneManet had just illustrated.While staying with Ernest Hoschedé in the summer, Manet paints a large portrait of Carolus-Duran.30 Édouard Manet J-B Faure dans le rôle d'Hamlet,
1877 Huile sur toile, 196 x 129 cm Essen, Folkwang Museum © Museum Folkwang, 2011 31
1877 Yet another affront: only Faure as Hamlet is accepted at the Salon. As Nanais refused, it is displayed in the window of the art dealer Giroux, in the boulevard des Capucines. Huge success and very enthusiastic article by Huysmans.
1879 New studio at 77, rue d’Amsterdam, enormous, luxurious and much frequented. Exhibits Boating and In the Greenhouse at the Salon. Critical reception to his work is improving. Manet, suffering from locomotor ataxia, a conditionassociated with syphilis, leaves for a rest cure in Bellevue, near Meudon.
1880 Private exhibition in the galleries of La Vie Modernein April. A real critical success. Exhibits Portrait of Mr.Antonin Proustand At Père Lathuille’s, at the Salon. Manet’s health deteriorates. Another cure at Bellevue, where he paints the portrait of the singer Émilie Ambre who had organised the exhibition ofThe Execution of Maximilianin New York and Boston at the end of 1879.
1881 Exhibits Portrait of Mr.Pertuiset andPortrait of Henri Rochefortat the Salon, where he is awarded a second-class medal. In early summer, the artist leaves to convalesce in Versailles. November-December: Antonin Proust is appointed Minister of Fine Arts, and Manet is made a Chevalier de la Légion d’Honneur.
1882 Exhibits Jeanneand A Bar at the Folies-Bergèreat the Salon. September: as his state of health is deteriorating,Manet draws up his will, appointing Suzanne as his sole legatee and Léon as his heir, after the death of his mother.
1883 Exhibits at the École des Beaux-arts in Paris, Lyon, New York and Boston. After having his left leg amputated, Manet dies on 30 April. He is buried in the cemetery in Passy.




List of works

Section 1.The choice of couture

Henri Fantin Latour

,

Hommage à Delacroix

, 1864, huile sur toile, 160 x 250 cm

Paris, musée d'Orsay

Édouard Manet

,

La Barque de Dante

, d'après Delacroix, 1854, huile sur toile , 38,1 x

48 cm, Lyon, Musée des Beaux Arts de Lyon

Édouard Manet

,

La Barque de Dante

, vers 1859, huile sur toile, 33 x 41 cm

New York, Metropolitan Museum of Art

Édouard Manet

,

Le Petit Lange

, 1861-62, huile sur toile, 115 x 72 cm

Karlsruhe, Staatliche Kunsthalle Karlsruhe

Édouard Manet

,

Le Jeune garçon à l'épée

, 1861, huile sur toile, 131.1 x 93.4 cm

New York, Metropolitan Museum of Art

Thomas Couture

,

Portrait de Henri Didier

, 1843, huile sur toile, 202 x 117 cm,

Compiègne, Musée Antoine Vivenel

Thomas Couture

,

Portrait de Henri Didier (tête)

, 1844, huile sur toile

Marseille, Musée des Beaux Arts

Thomas Couture

,

Portrait de Henri Didier (tête)

, 1844, crayon noir, 33 x 27 cm

Paris, Collection Prat

Thomas Couture

,

Portrait d'Amédée Berger

, 1852, huile sur toile, 55 x 46 cm

Rouen , Musée des Beaux Arts

Thomas Couture

,

Prince S. T.

, 1852, huile sur toile, 52 x 43 cm

Bordeaux, Musée des Beaux Arts

Édouard Manet

,

Portrait d'homme

, 1855-56, huile sur toile, 56 x 47 cm

Prague, National Gallery

Édouard Manet

,

Portrait de Roudier

, vers 1860-1863, sanguine, 19,7 x 15,7 cm

Paris, musée d'Orsay

Édouard Manet

,

Portrait de Roudier

, 1860, huile sur toile, 61,4 x 50,4 cm

Otterlo, Kröller Müller Museum

Thomas Couture

,

Esquisse pour L'Enrôlement des volontaires de 1792

, 1848

huile sur toile, 21 x 37 cm, Beauvais, Musée départ

emental de l'Oise

33

Thomas Couture

,

Deux volontaires : le noble et l'ouvrier

, 1848, huile sur bois, 100,5

x 83 cm, Beauvais, Musée départemental de l'Oise

Thomas Couture

,

Cavalier au cheval cabré

, entre 1815 et 1879, huile sur toile, 84 x

75 cm, Beauvais, Musée départemental de l'Oise

Thomas Couture

,

Homme vu de dos

, entre 1815 et 1879, huile sur toile, 81 x 75 cm,

Beauvais, Musée départemental de l'Oise

Édouard Manet

,

Tête d'homme étendu,

mine de plomb, 21,7 x 26,9 cm

Paris, musée d'Orsay

Thomas Couture

,

Étude en pied pour Mme Bruat

, 1856, huile sur toile, 65 x 81 cm

Compiègne, Musée national du château de Compiègne

Édouard Manet

,

Main gauche avec deux alliances,

crayon et craie blanche, 18,2 x

26,9 cm, Paris, musée d'Orsay

Édouard Manet

,

Guerrier tenant une lance,

mine de plomb, aquarelle, 28,9 x 21,1

cm, Paris, musée d'Orsay

Édouard Manet

,

Figure debout

,

drapée, tenant glaive,

mine de plomb, 28,9 x 21,1

cm, Paris, musée d'Orsay

Édouard Manet

,

Figure debout, drapée portant deux vases

, vers 1852-1858,

sanguine, 29,8 x 21,9 cm, Paris, Musée d'Orsay

Édouard Manet

,

Homme debout, drapé

, vers 1852-1857, sanguine, 28,9 x 21,9 cm

Paris, musée d'Orsay

Édouard Manet

,

Chrysippos

, vers 1862, sanguine, 22,8 x 14,2 cm

Paris, musée d'Orsay

Édouard Manet

,

Deux personnages debout, en pied, dont l'un drapé,

non daté

sanguine et pierre noire, 28,9 x 21,1 cm, Paris Mus

ée d'Orsay

Édouard Manet

,

Monsieur et Madame Auguste Manet

(Portrait des parents de

Manet), 1860, huile sur toile, 110 x 90 cm, Paris,

musée d'Orsay

Édouard Manet

,

Portrait du père de l'artiste

, eau-forte

Paris, Bibliothèque Nationale de France

Édouard Manet

,

Portrait des parents de Manet

, 1859-1860, sanguine, 31 x 25 cm

Paris, musée d'Orsay

Édouard Manet

,

Portrait du Tintoret par lui-même

, 1854, huile sur toile, 64 x 50 cm

Dijon, Musée des Beaux Arts de Dijon









































































 



Section 3. A suspect catholicism ?

Édouard Manet

,

Silentium

, 2e état (état définitif), Planche n°10 de l'album

Ed.Manet

Trente eaux-fortes, ed.A strölin, 1905, eau forte,

20,8 x 15,5 cm (coup de planche)

Paris, Institut National d'Histoire de l'Art INHA

Édouard Manet

,

Moine de profil

, 1853-1857, dessin à la sanguine, 34,5 x 22 cm

(boîte écu), Paris, Bibliothèque Nationale de Franc

e

Édouard Manet

,

Deux religieux agenouillés : saint Jean Gualberto e

t saint Pierre

martyr

, mine de plomb, 28,9 x 21,1 cm

Paris, musée d'Orsay

Édouard Manet

,

Moine agenouillé, tenant un livre dans les bras : s

aint Bernard

mine de plomb, 28,9 x 21,1 cm

Paris, musée d'Orsay

Édouard Manet

,

Étude pour le Christ jardinier

, vers 1863, sanguine sur papier à

filigranes, 34 x 24 cm, Paris, Collection Prat

Alphonse Legros

,

La vocation de saint François

, 1861, huile sur toile, 138 x 196 cm

Alençon, Musée des Beaux Arts et de la Dentelle

Édouard Manet

,

Un Moine en prière

, 1865, huile sur toile, 146,4 x 115 cm

Boston, Museum of Fine Arts

Édouard Manet

,

Le Christ aux anges

, 1864, aquarelle, 32,5 x 27 cm

Paris, musée d'Orsay

Édouard Manet

,

Le Christ aux anges

, 1864, huile sur toile, 179,4 x 149, 9 cm

New York, Metropolitan Museum of Art

Édouard Manet

,

Jésus insulté par les soldats

, 1864, encre, 26,8 x 20,9 cm

Boston, Museum of Fine Arts

Édouard Manet

,

Tête de Christ

, 1865, huile sur toile, 46,7 x 38,7 cm

San Francisco, The Fine Arts Museum of San Francisc

o

Édouard Manet

,

Le Christ insulté par les soldats

, 1865, huile sur toile, 190, 8 x 148,

3 cm, Chicago, The Art Institute of Chicago

38

Section 4. From the Prado to the Alma

Édouard Manet

,

Angelina

, 1865, huile sur toile, 92 x 73 cm

Paris, musée d'Orsay

Édouard Manet

,

Le Buveur d'eau

(

3e fragment des Gitans)

, 1862-1872, huile sur

toile, 61,8 x 54,3 cm, Chicago, The Art Institute o

f Chicago

Édouard Manet

,

Un fragment des Gitans : Le Bohémien

, vers 1861-62 découpé en

1867, huile sur toile, 90,5 x 53,3 cm, Paris, Agenc

e France-Muséums

Édouard Manet

,

Un fragment des Gitans : Nature morte au cabas et à

l'ail

, vers

1861-62 découpé 1867, huile sur toile, 27 x 35 cm,

Paris, Agence France-Muséums

Édouard Manet

,

Gitane à la cigarette

, 1862, huile sur toile, 92 x 73,5 cm

Princeton, Princeton University Art Museum

Édouard Manet

,

Le Fifre,

1866, huile sur toile, 161 x 97 cm

Paris, musée d'Orsay

Édouard Manet

,

Les Bulles de savon

, 1867, huile sur toile, 100,5 x 81,4 cm

Lisbonne, Musée Calouste Gulbenkian

Édouard Manet

,

Émile Zola

, 1868, huile sur toile, 146,5 x 114 cm

Paris, musée d'Orsay

Édouard Manet

,

Portrait de Théodore Duret

, 1868, huile sur toile, 46,5 x 35,5 cm

Paris, Petit Palais – Musée des Beaux-Arts de la Vi

lle de Paris

Édouard Manet

,

Combat de taureaux

, 1865-1866, huile sur toile, 90 x 110,5 cm

Paris, musée d'Orsay

Édouard Manet

,

Le Toréro mort

, 1864, huile sur toile, 75,9 x 153,3 cm

Washington National Gallery

Édouard Manet

,

Courses à Longchamp

, 1866, huile sur toile, 43,9 x 84,5 cm

Chicago, The Art Institute of Chicago

Édouard Manet

,

Courses à Longchamp

, 1867, aquarelle, 19,6 x 27 cm

Paris, musée d'Orsay

Édouard Manet

,

Femmes aux courses

, 1866, huile sur toile, 42,2 x 32,1 cm

Cincinnati, Cincinnati Art Museum

Henri Fantin Latour

,

Portrait de Manet

, 1867, huile sur toile, 117,5 x 90 cm

Chicago, The Art Institute of Chicago

Édouard Manet,

La lecture,

entre 1848 et 1883, huile sur toile, 60,5 cm x 73,5

cm

Paris, musée d'Orsay

39

Section 5. The promises of a face

Édouard Manet

,

Le Balcon

, 1868-1869, huile sur toile, 170 x 124,5 cm

Paris, musée d'Orsay

Édouard Manet,

Berthe Morisot au bouquet de violettes

, 1872, huile sur toile, 55,5 x

40,5 cm, Paris, musée d'Orsay

Édouard Manet,

Portrait de Berthe Morisot à la voilette

, 1872, huile sur toile , 61,5 x

47, 5 cm, Genève, Petit Palais, Musée d'Art Moderne

Édouard Manet,

Berthe Morisot à l'éventai

l, 1872, huile sur toile, 60 x 45 cm

Paris musée d'Orsay

Édouard Manet,

P

ortrait de Berthe Morisot à l'éventail

, 1874, huile sur toile, 61 x

50,5 cm, Lille, Musée des Beaux Arts de Lille

Édouard Manet,

Madame Manet au piano

, 1868, huile sur toile, 38 cm x 46,5 cm

Paris, musée d'Orsay

Section 6. The trap of Impressionism

Édouard Manet,

Sur la plage de Boulogne

, 1868, huile sur toile, 32,4 x 66 cm

Richmond, Virginia Museum of Fine Arts

Édouard Manet,

Bateaux en mer. Soleil couchant

, 1869-1873, huile sur toile, 42 x

94 cm, Le Havre, Musées des Beaux Arts André Malrau

x

Édouard Manet,

Clair de lune sur le port de Boulogne

, 1869, huile sur toile, 82 cm x

101 cm, Paris, musée d'Orsay

Édouard Manet,

Le Port de Calais

, 1864-1865, huile sur toile, 81,5 x 100,7 cm

Genève, Collection Alain Tarica

Édouard Manet

,

Sur la plage

, 1873, huile sur toile, 59,5 x 73 cm

Paris, musée d'Orsay

Édouard Manet

,

La Partie de croquet

, 1873, huile sur toile, 72.5 x 106 cm

Francfort, Stäedel Museum

Édouard Manet,

Le chemin de Fer, la Gare Saint Lazare

, 1873-74, réhaussée

d'aquarelle, 18 x 22 cm, Genève, Collection Particu

lière

Édouard Manet

,

La Seine à Argenteuil

, 1874, huile sur toile, 62,3 x 103 cm

Londres, Courtauld

40

Édouard Manet

,

Portrait de Nina de Callias

, vers 1873-1874, gouache, bois, rehauts

à la mine de plomb, 9,5 x 7 cm, Paris, musée d'Orsa

y

Édouard Manet,

Portrait de Théodore de Banville

, encre noire, lavis gris, plume,

18,4 x 11,9 cm, Paris musée d'Orsay

Stéphane Mallarmé et Edouard Manet,

Quatre planches pour

Le Corbeau, poème

d'Edgar Poe, traduit par Stéphane Mallarmé, illustr

é de cinq dessins de Manet

ouvrage, Vulaines-sur-Seine, Musée départemental St

éphane Mallarmé

Stéphane Mallarmé

, L'Après-midi d'un faune

, éd. Originale, Paris, Alphonse

Derenne, exemplaire d'Edmond Bonniot, Paris, 1876,

ouvrage, 28 x 19,5 cm

(intérieur)

Vulaines-sur-Seine, Musée départemental Stéphane Ma

llarmé

Édouard Manet

,

Stéphane Mallarmé

, 1876, huile sur toile, 27,5 x 36 cm

Paris, musée d'Orsay

Édouard Manet,

La dame aux éventails

, 1873, huile sur toile, 113,5x166, 6 cm

Paris, musée d'Orsay

Édouard Manet,

L'Acteur tragique

, 1866, eau forte et aquatinte, 36,7 x 21,8 cm

Paris, Institut National d'Histoire de l'Art INHA

Delacroix

,

Hamlet tuant Polonius

, 1834, dessin, 22 x 22 cm

Paris Collection Prat

Édouard Manet,

Portrait de Faure dans le rôle d'Hamlet

, 1877, huile sur toile, 194 x

131,5 cm, Essen, Folkwang Museum

Édouard Manet

,

Portrait de Faure

, 1882-83, huile sur toile, 59,1 x 49,5 cm

New York, Metropolitan Museum of Art

Édouard Manet

,

Carolus-Duran

, 1876, huile sur toile, 191,8x172, 7 cm

Birmingham, Barber Institute of Fine Arts, Universi

ty of Birmingham

Édouard Manet

,

Portrait d'Albert Wolff

, 1877, huile sur toile, 92 x 73 cm

Zurich Kunsthaus Zürich 

Section 7. 1879 a turning point

Henri Gervex

,

Madame Valtesse de la Bigne

, 1889, huile sur toile, 200 x 122 cm

Paris, musée d'Orsay

Édouard Manet

,

Au Père Lathuille

, 1879, huile sur toile, 93,5 x 112,5 cm

Tournai, Musée des Beaux Arts de Tournai

41

Édouard Manet,

Portrait d'Isabelle Lemonnier, vers 1880, aquarelle

, 20 x 10,4 cm

Paris, musée d'Orsay

Édouard Manet

,

6 lettres ornées à Isabelle Lemonnier

, aquarelles

Paris, musée d'Orsay

Édouard Manet

,

Deux moitiés d'amande décorant une pièce autographe

avec

L ’inscription Philippine

, vers 1880, aquarelle, Paris, musée d'Orsay

La vie moderne

, n°17 du 17 avril 1880, document

Paris Bibliothèque Nationale de France

Édouard Manet

,

Liseuse

, 1879-1880, huile sur toile, 61,2 x 50,7 cm

Chicago, The Art Institute of Chicago

Édouard Manet,

Portrait d'Irma Bruner

, vers 1880, pastel sur toile et châssis, 53,5 x

44,1 cm, Paris, musée d'Orsay

Édouard Manet

Portrait d'Irma Brunner (ou la Viennoise)

, vers 1880

Pastel, 53,5 x 44,1 cm

Paris, musée d'Orsay

© Musée d'Orsay, dist. RMN/Patrice Schmidt

42

Édouard Manet,

La serveuse de bocks

, 1878-1879, huile sur toile, 77,5 x 65 cm

Paris, musée d'Orsay

Édouard Manet

,

Claude Monet dans son atelier

, 1874, huile sur toile, 106,5 x 135

cm, Stuttgart, Staatsgalerie Stuttgart

Édouard Manet

, Portrait de Claude Monet

, vers 1880, dessin et plume, 13,6 x 11,5

cm, Paris Collection Particulière

Édouard Manet

,

Portrait de Madame Emile Zola

, vers 1879, pastel sur toile et

châssis, 55,7 x 46 cm, Paris, musée d'Orsay

Édouard Manet

,

La blonde aux seins nus

, vers 1878, essai décoratif (huile sur toile),

62,5 x 52 cm, Paris, musée d'Orsay

Édouard Manet

,

Le Tub

, 1878, pastel sur toile, 54 x 45 cm

Paris, Musée d'Orsay

Édouard Manet,

Jeune femme blonde aux yeux bleus

, vers 1877, pastel sur papier

beige, 60 x 50 cm, Paris, Musée d'Orsay

Édouard Manet,

Trois têtes de femme

, 1880, aquarelle, 19 x 12 cm

Dijon, Musée des Beaux Arts de Dijon

Édouard Manet

,

Deux chapeaux

, 1880, aquarelle, 20 x 12,4 cm

Dijon, Musée des Beaux Arts de Dijon

Édouard Manet

,

Au café, étude de jambes (Deux jambes avec bottines

sous une

jupe rouge, devant un guéridon)

, 1880, aquarelle, 18,6 x 12 cm

Paris, Musée d'Orsay

Édouard Manet

,

Homme debout sur une scène (Chanteur de café avec o

rchestre)

,

vers 1880, crayon, 18,5 x 29,3 cm, Paris, Musée d'O

rsay

Édouard Manet

,

Scène de café-concert (Groupe de personnages assis,

de dos)

,

vers 1880, crayon, 14,1 x 18,6 cm, Paris Musée d'Or

say

Édouard Manet,

Un bar aux Folies-Bergères,

1881-1882, huile sur toile, 47 x 56 cm

Londres, Pyms Gallery

Édouard Manet,

La Petite Polonaise

, vers 1878, encre et crayon, 32 x 27 cm

Paris, Collection Françoise Cachin

Édouard Manet,

Femme en robe de soirée,

1880, huile sur toile, 180 x 85 cm

New York, Solomon R.Guggenheim Museum

Édouard Manet,

Émilie Ambre dans le rôle de Carmen

, 1879-1880, huile sur toile,

91,5 x 73,5 cm, Philadelphie, Philadephia Museum of

Art

43

Édouard Manet,

Chez la modiste

, 1881, huile sur toile, 85,1 x 73,7 cm

San Francisco, The Fine Arts Museum of San Francisc

o

Mary Cassatt

,

Portrait de Mademoiselle C Lydia Cassatt

, 1880, huile sur toile, 92,5 x

65,5 cm, Paris, Petit Palais – Musée des Beaux-Arts

de la Ville de Paris

Berthe Morisot

,

L'Eté

, 1878-1879, huile sur toile, 76 x 61 cm

Montpellier,Musée Fabre

Édouard Manet,

L'Automne

, 1881, huile sur toile, 75 x 51 cm

Nancy, Musée des Beaux Arts

Édouard Manet,

Amazone

, c.1882, huile sur toile, 73 x 52 cm

Madrid, Museo Thyssen-Bornemisza

Édouard Manet,

Jeanne (le printemps) : version noir et blanc,

illustration, 18,4 x 24,9

cm, Paris, Bibliothèque Nationale de France

Ernest Hoschédé

,

Impressions de mon Voyage au Salon de 1882,

plaquette 2e

état, Paris, Bibliothèque Nationale de France

Section 8. Less is more

Édouard Manet

,

Vase de pivoines sur piédouche

, 1864, huile sur toile, 93,2 x 70,2

cm, Paris, Musée d'Orsay

Édouard Manet

,

Branche de pivoines blanches et sécateur

, 1864, huile sur toile, 31

x 46,5 cm, Paris Musée d'Orsay

Édouard Manet

,

Tige de Pivoines et sécateur

, 1864, huile sur toile, 57 x 46 cm

Pari, musée d'Orsay

Édouard Manet

,

Anguille et Rouget

, 1864, huile sur toile, 38 x 46,5 cm

Paris, musée d'Orsay

Édouard Manet

,

Nature morte, fruits sur une table

, 1864, huile sur toile, 45 x 73,5

cm, Paris, musée d'Orsay

Édouard Manet

,

L'Asperge

, 1880, huile sur toile, 16,5 x 21,5 cm

Paris, musée d'Orsay

Édouard Manet

,

Le Citron,

1880, huile sur toile, 14 x 22 cm

Paris, musée d'Orsay

Édouard Manet

,

Fleurs dans un vase de cristal,

1882, huile sur toile, 54,6 x 35,2 cm

Paris, musée d'Orsay

44

Édouard Manet

,

Fleurs dans un vase de cristal (Oeillets et clémati

te dans un vase

de cristal)

, 1882, huile sur toile, 56 x 35,5 cm, Paris, musée

d'Orsay

Section 9.The end of a story?

Édouard Manet,

Caricature d'Emile Ollivier

Paris, Bibliothèque Nationale de France

Édouard Manet,

L'Exécution de Maximilien

, 1867, huile sur toile, 195,9 x 259,7 cm

Boston,Museum of Fine Arts

Édouard Manet,

La Bataille du Kearsarge et de l’Alabama

, 1864, huile sur toile, 134

x 127 cm, Philadelphie, Philadephia Museum of Art

Édouard Manet,

La barricade

, 1871, lavis et aquarelle, 46,2 x 32,5 cm

Budapest, Svepmüvészeti Múzeum

Édouard Manet

,

La barricade

, 1871, lithographie, 46,5 x 33,4 cm

Paris, Bibliothèque Nationale de France

Édouard Manet

,

L'Exécution de Maximilien,

1867, lithographie

Paris, Galerie Prouté

Édouard Manet,

Guerre civile,

1871, lithographie

Paris, Galerie Prouté

Édouard Manet

,

Bazaine devant le conseil de guerre

, 1873, mine de plomb

Rotterdam,Musée Boymans van Beuningen

Édouard Manet,

La Rue Mosnier au drapeau

, 1878, huile sur toile, 65,4 x 80,6 cm

Los Angeles J. Paul Getty Museum

Édouard Manet,

Vive l'amnistie (Deux drapeaux française décorant u

ne lettre à

Isabelle Lemonnier)

, vers 1880, aquarelle, 18 x 11,2 cm, Paris, musée

d'Orsay

Alphonse Le Gros

, Léon Gambetta

, 1873, huile sur toile, 66,5 x 54,5 cm

Paris, musée d'Orsay

Édouard Manet

,

Georges Clémenceau

, 1879-1880, huile sur toile, 94,5 x 74 cm

Paris, musée d'Orsay

Édouard Manet

,

Portrait de Georges Clémenceau à la tribune

, 1879-1880

huile sur toile, 116 x 94 cm, Fort Worth,Kimbell Ar

t Museum

Édouard Manet

,

Antonin Proust

, 1880, huile sur toile, 130 x 96 cm

Toledo , Toledo Museum of Art

45

Eduardo Manet

,

Portrait d'Antonin Proust

, 1877, huile sur toile, 183x 110 cm

Montpellier,Musée Fabre

Édouard Manet

,

Henri Rochefort

, 1881, huile sur toile, 81,5 x 66,5 cm

Hambourg,Hamburger Kunsthalle

Giovanni Boldini

,

Henri Rochefort

, vers 1882, huile sur toile, 61 x 50 cm

Paris, musée d'Orsay

Édouard Manet

,

L'évasion de Rochefort

, vers 1881, huile sur toile, 80 x 73 cm

Paris, musée d'Orsay 

49

Édouard Manet

Chez la modiste (At the Milliner's)

, 1881

Huile sur toile, 85,1 x 73,7 cm

San Francisco, Fine Arts Museum

© Fine Arts Museums of San Francisco



Édouard Manet

Stéphane Mallarmé

, 1876

Huile sur toile, 27,5 x 36 cm

Paris, musée d'Orsay

© Musée d'Orsay, dist. RMN / Patrice Schmidt

46

6. Publications

I. Exhibition Catalogue

Gallimard

Édouard Manet,

the Man who invented Modern Art

Edited by Stéphane Guégan

Contents

-

Foreword,

Guy Cogeval

-

1983: reasons for an exhibition,

Françoise Cachin

-

Introduction,

Stéphane Guégan

Essays

- Manet in the Public Eye, Manet in Full View

, Stéphane Guégan

- Painting in Pieces,

Laurence des Cars

- What was Manet’s Market?

Simon Kelly

- Manet’s Social World,

Nancy Locke

-

Manet’s Parisian Women,

Helen Burnham

- Manet, the Aesthetic and Function of Drawing,

Louis Antoine Prat

- The Rebirth of Manet

, discussion Philippe Sollers / Stéphane Guégan

Format

:

Number of pages:

336 pages

Number of illustrations:

280 ill.

Joint publication

: Musée d’Orsay / Gallimard

Price

: approx. €42

Press Services

French Press:

Béatrice Foti, ++33 (0)1 49 54 42 10, beatrice.foti

@gallimard.fr

Assisted by francoise.issaurat@gallimard.fr

Regional / International Press:

Pierre Gestede, +33 (0)1 49 54 42 54,

pierre.gestede@gallimard.fr



Édouard Manet,

La serveuse de bocks

, 1878-1879, huile sur toile, 77,5 x 65 cm

Paris, musée d'Orsay

Édouard Manet

,

Claude Monet dans son atelier

, 1874, huile sur toile, 106,5 x 135

cm, Stuttgart, Staatsgalerie Stuttgart

Édouard Manet

, Portrait de Claude Monet

, vers 1880, dessin et plume, 13,6 x 11,5

cm, Paris Collection Particulière

Édouard Manet

,

Portrait de Madame Emile Zola

, vers 1879, pastel sur toile et

châssis, 55,7 x 46 cm, Paris, musée d'Orsay

Édouard Manet

,

La blonde aux seins nus

, vers 1878, essai décoratif (huile sur toile),

62,5 x 52 cm, Paris, musée d'Orsay

Édouard Manet

,

Le Tub

, 1878, pastel sur toile, 54 x 45 cm

Paris, Musée d'Orsay

Édouard Manet,

Jeune femme blonde aux yeux bleus

, vers 1877, pastel sur papier

beige, 60 x 50 cm, Paris, Musée d'Orsay

Édouard Manet,

Trois têtes de femme

, 1880, aquarelle, 19 x 12 cm

Dijon, Musée des Beaux Arts de Dijon

Édouard Manet

,

Deux chapeaux

, 1880, aquarelle, 20 x 12,4 cm

Dijon, Musée des Beaux Arts de Dijon

Édouard Manet

,

Au café, étude de jambes (Deux jambes avec bottines

sous une

jupe rouge, devant un guéridon)

, 1880, aquarelle, 18,6 x 12 cm

Paris, Musée d'Orsay

Édouard Manet

,

Homme debout sur une scène (Chanteur de café avec o

rchestre)

,

vers 1880, crayon, 18,5 x 29,3 cm, Paris, Musée d'O

rsay

Édouard Manet

,

Scène de café-concert (Groupe de personnages assis,

de dos)

,

vers 1880, crayon, 14,1 x 18,6 cm, Paris Musée d'Or

say

Édouard Manet,

Un bar aux Folies-Bergères,

1881-1882, huile sur toile, 47 x 56 cm

Londres, Pyms Gallery

Édouard Manet,

La Petite Polonaise

, vers 1878, encre et crayon, 32 x 27 cm

Paris, Collection Françoise Cachin

Édouard Manet,

Femme en robe de soirée,

1880, huile sur toile, 180 x 85 cm

New York, Solomon R.Guggenheim Museum

Édouard Manet,

Émilie Ambre dans le rôle de Carmen

, 1879-1880, huile sur toile,

91,5 x 73,5 cm, Philadelphie, Philadephia Museum of

Art

43

Édouard Manet,

Chez la modiste

, 1881, huile sur toile, 85,1 x 73,7 cm

San Francisco, The Fine Arts Museum of San Francisc

o

Mary Cassatt

,

Portrait de Mademoiselle C Lydia Cassatt

, 1880, huile sur toile, 92,5 x

65,5 cm, Paris, Petit Palais – Musée des Beaux-Arts

de la Ville de Paris

Berthe Morisot

,

L'Eté

, 1878-1879, huile sur toile, 76 x 61 cm

Montpellier,Musée Fabre

Édouard Manet,

L'Automne

, 1881, huile sur toile, 75 x 51 cm

Nancy, Musée des Beaux Arts

Édouard Manet,

Amazone

, c.1882, huile sur toile, 73 x 52 cm

Madrid, Museo Thyssen-Bornemisza

Édouard Manet,

Jeanne (le printemps) : version noir et blanc,

illustration, 18,4 x 24,9

cm, Paris, Bibliothèque Nationale de France

Ernest Hoschédé

,

Impressions de mon Voyage au Salon de 1882,

plaquette 2e

état, Paris, Bibliothèque Nationale de France

Section 8. Less is more

Édouard Manet

,

Vase de pivoines sur piédouche

, 1864, huile sur toile, 93,2 x 70,2

cm, Paris, Musée d'Orsay

Édouard Manet

,

Branche de pivoines blanches et sécateur

, 1864, huile sur toile, 31

x 46,5 cm, Paris Musée d'Orsay

Édouard Manet

,

Tige de Pivoines et sécateur

, 1864, huile sur toile, 57 x 46 cm

Pari, musée d'Orsay

Édouard Manet

,

Anguille et Rouget

, 1864, huile sur toile, 38 x 46,5 cm

Paris, musée d'Orsay

Édouard Manet

,

Nature morte, fruits sur une table

, 1864, huile sur toile, 45 x 73,5

cm, Paris, musée d'Orsay

Édouard Manet

,

L'Asperge

, 1880, huile sur toile, 16,5 x 21,5 cm

Paris, musée d'Orsay

Édouard Manet

,

Le Citron,

1880, huile sur toile, 14 x 22 cm

Paris, musée d'Orsay

Édouard Manet

,

Fleurs dans un vase de cristal,

1882, huile sur toile, 54,6 x 35,2 cm

Paris, musée d'Orsay

44

Édouard Manet

,

Fleurs dans un vase de cristal (Oeillets et clémati

te dans un vase

de cristal)

, 1882, huile sur toile, 56 x 35,5 cm, Paris, musée

d'Orsay

Section 9.The end of a story?

Édouard Manet,

Caricature d'Emile Ollivier

Paris, Bibliothèque Nationale de France

Édouard Manet,

L'Exécution de Maximilien

, 1867, huile sur toile, 195,9 x 259,7 cm

Boston,Museum of Fine Arts

Édouard Manet,

La Bataille du Kearsarge et de l’Alabama

, 1864, huile sur toile, 134

x 127 cm, Philadelphie, Philadephia Museum of Art

Édouard Manet,

La barricade

, 1871, lavis et aquarelle, 46,2 x 32,5 cm

Budapest, Svepmüvészeti Múzeum

Édouard Manet

,

La barricade

, 1871, lithographie, 46,5 x 33,4 cm

Paris, Bibliothèque Nationale de France

Édouard Manet

,

L'Exécution de Maximilien,

1867, lithographie

Paris, Galerie Prouté

Édouard Manet,

Guerre civile,

1871, lithographie

Paris, Galerie Prouté

Édouard Manet

,

Bazaine devant le conseil de guerre

, 1873, mine de plomb

Rotterdam,Musée Boymans van Beuningen

Édouard Manet,

La Rue Mosnier au drapeau

, 1878, huile sur toile, 65,4 x 80,6 cm

Los Angeles J. Paul Getty Museum

Édouard Manet,

Vive l'amnistie (Deux drapeaux française décorant u

ne lettre à

Isabelle Lemonnier)

, vers 1880, aquarelle, 18 x 11,2 cm, Paris, musée

d'Orsay

Alphonse Le Gros

, Léon Gambetta

, 1873, huile sur toile, 66,5 x 54,5 cm

Paris, musée d'Orsay

Édouard Manet

,

Georges Clémenceau

, 1879-1880, huile sur toile, 94,5 x 74 cm

Paris, musée d'Orsay

Édouard Manet

,

Portrait de Georges Clémenceau à la tribune

, 1879-1880

huile sur toile, 116 x 94 cm, Fort Worth,Kimbell Ar

t Museum

Édouard Manet

,

Antonin Proust

, 1880, huile sur toile, 130 x 96 cm

Toledo , Toledo Museum of Art

45

Eduardo Manet

,

Portrait d'Antonin Proust

, 1877, huile sur toile, 183x 110 cm

Montpellier,Musée Fabre

Édouard Manet

,

Henri Rochefort

, 1881, huile sur toile, 81,5 x 66,5 cm

Hambourg,Hamburger Kunsthalle

Giovanni Boldini

,

Henri Rochefort

, vers 1882, huile sur toile, 61 x 50 cm

Paris, musée d'Orsay

Édouard Manet

,

L'évasion de Rochefort

, vers 1881, huile sur toile, 80 x 73 cm

Paris, musée d'Orsay